Black mulberry, Morus nigra L. (family: Moraceae), is a healthy food and medicinal plant. Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) is one of the most innovative applications of solvent-free microwave extraction. The aim of this study was to optimize for the first time the MHG solvent-free extraction of polyphenols and sugars from M. nigra fruits. Optimization was carried out using a central composite design (CCD) with selected responses such as extraction yield, total polyphenol (TPC), flavonoid (TFC), anthocyanin (TAC), and sugar (TSC) contents, in addition to DPPH radical scavenging, and α-glucosidase (AGHi), lipase (Li), and xanthine oxidase (XOi) inhibition as tools to evaluate the best parameters for efficient and rapid extraction of black mulberry. The optimized extract was characterized in terms of the aforementioned parameters to validate the models, and was further analyzed for 36 individual polyphenols using HPLC-MS/MS. The optimized MHG extract was finally compared with traditional extracts, and demonstrated much better performance in terms of TPC, TAC, and Li, while the traditional extracts showed better XOi and AGHi. In conclusion, MHG is a valuable green technique for the production of non-degraded black mulberry polyphenol-rich extract and we suggest its larger use in the pharmaceutical and food industries.

Optimization of solvent-free microwave-assisted hydrodiffusion and gravity extraction of Morus nigra L. fruits maximizing polyphenols, sugar content and biological activities using central composite design

E. Mazzara
Secondo
;
D. Abouelenein;S. Angeloni;G. Sagratini;M. Cespi;S. Vittori;G. Caprioli
Penultimo
;
F. Maggi
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

Black mulberry, Morus nigra L. (family: Moraceae), is a healthy food and medicinal plant. Microwave hydrodiffusion and gravity (MHG) is one of the most innovative applications of solvent-free microwave extraction. The aim of this study was to optimize for the first time the MHG solvent-free extraction of polyphenols and sugars from M. nigra fruits. Optimization was carried out using a central composite design (CCD) with selected responses such as extraction yield, total polyphenol (TPC), flavonoid (TFC), anthocyanin (TAC), and sugar (TSC) contents, in addition to DPPH radical scavenging, and α-glucosidase (AGHi), lipase (Li), and xanthine oxidase (XOi) inhibition as tools to evaluate the best parameters for efficient and rapid extraction of black mulberry. The optimized extract was characterized in terms of the aforementioned parameters to validate the models, and was further analyzed for 36 individual polyphenols using HPLC-MS/MS. The optimized MHG extract was finally compared with traditional extracts, and demonstrated much better performance in terms of TPC, TAC, and Li, while the traditional extracts showed better XOi and AGHi. In conclusion, MHG is a valuable green technique for the production of non-degraded black mulberry polyphenol-rich extract and we suggest its larger use in the pharmaceutical and food industries.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11581/456272
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