During the postwar period, tourism became a very important economic activity and, successively, a real industry with an incomparable territorial distribution. In the world, the productive economic sector connected with tourism grows about 6.5% every year and it is one of the most important sources of employment. The growth of the tourist trade is always connected with the building industry and, for this reason, it produces effects on the environment which are being more and more important for what concerns the used resources and the produced environmental wastes. The main interest regarding the ''environmental sustainability'' of the tourist sector consists in minimizing the environmental impact by making operators and tourists have ''responsible'' behaviours. The choice of the ''eco-efficiency'' is one of the abovementioned behaviours which mainly constitutes an economic advantage because the daily energy consumption is, for each person, in Italian hotels, four times higher than the typical consumption of the residential sector. It is worth mentioning that by realizing bioclimatic buildings and/or low environmental impact facilities it is possible to get improvements in the energy management from 30% to 70% in comparison with the standardized medium energy consumption. The Italian accommodation facilities are the theme of this research. It has to be considered that users spend in the accommodation facility a relaxing and quite period. It encourages the meditation and some virtuous behaviours in which it is possible to assure the best quality and the best level of wellness; at the same time, it is a complex system, difficult to control during its planning, management and following transformation and/or its casting off in order to optimize the environmental impact. Furthermore, there is an aspect connected with the energy classification and the correspondence to standard performance parameters because all the buildings destined to become accommodation facilities have to be shortly adapted to the CEE directives (2002 2010) about energy efficiency and to the connected national laws about the energy performances of the buildings (DL 192/05 and 311/06, Linee guida per la certificazione energetic DL 59/09). Generally, the accommodation facilities use a great deal of energy and, for this reason, they have to be built or reconvert into eco-efficient systems thanks to the bioclimatic design used both in new buildings and in existing accommodation facilities. Taking into account this situation, the problems to be studied in this research are: ï‚· The intensity of energy consumption compared with other kinds of tourism connected with seasons which can show different, contrasting performances; ï‚· The problem related to the integration between the quality of the building cover and the installation using by different kinds of control connected with the type, the levels of obtainable comfort and the geographical situation on which the accommodation facility is; consequently, all the cases are different in terms of needs and/or consumption of energy sources; ï‚· The use of renewable energy, such as the solar, the mini-aeolic, the geothermal, the water ones and the energy which uses the biomass, using by integrable system with each one formed by building/installation; ï‚· The use of eco-efficient material which assumes a great value in the accommodation facilities in terms of marketing and inner wellness, coming from the healthiness of the spaces for users; it is an important value, added from the point of view of the tourist offer; ï‚· The integration and the variety of performances granted by the building components (ecological materials with high-thermal, lighting and acoustic performances, technologies for the production of energy, installation). To conclude, the research shows a method of design specific for building covers in the accommodation facilities, by pointing its attention on ''light'' component (with a frontal mass not higher than 100a'·150 kg/mq) in which ''intelligent'', reactant materials will be used; thanks to their specific, physical properties, they can interact dynamically with the outside and the inside microclimate. Consequently, most of the time, they can assure comfort by reducing the need of ''external'' energy sources. When this level of comfort couldn't be granted by the dynamic performance of the building cover, inside the component of this cover an installation integration ''located'' by dedicated system is foreseen. The aim of this method is a planning and a transformation of eco-efficient, architectural cover; they are more important because Italy is a tourist country, where hotels are spread all over the national area in very different climatic conditions (from the Alps to the southern coasts) which, every time, require a great adaptability of planning situations.
|Titolo:||Design di involucri ad alta efficienza energetica: Caratterizzazione ''Low-energy'' per il settore turistico-ricettivo Design of high energy-efficient architectural enclosure: Low-energy characterization in tourist facilities sector|
|Data di pubblicazione:||12-lug-2012|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Tesi di dottorato (Pregresso)|