The aim of the present work was to investigate the solid state change of the anhydrous and hydrate solid forms of sodium naproxen under different grinding and environmental conditions. Grinding was carried out manually in a mortar under the following conditions: at room temperature under air atmosphere (Method A), in the presence of liquid nitrogen under air atmosphere (Method B), at room temperature under nitrogen atmosphere (Method C), and in the presence of liquid nitrogen under nitrogen atmosphere (Method D). Among the hydrates, the following forms were used: a dihydrate form (DSN) obtained by exposing the anhydrous form at 55% RH; a dihydrate form (CSN) obtained by crystallizing sodium naproxen from water; the tetrahydrate form (TSN) obtained by exposing the anhydrous form at 75% RH. The metastable monohydrate form (MSN), previously described in the literature, was not used because of its high physical instability. The chemical stability during grinding was firstly assessed and proven by HPLC. Modification of the particle size and shape, and changes in the solid state under different grinding methods were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffractometry and thermogravimetry, respectively. The study demonstrated the strong influence of starting form, grinding and environmental conditions on particle size, shape and solid state of recovered sodium naproxen forms. In particular, it was demonstrated that in the absence of liquid nitrogen (Methods A and C), either at air or at nitrogen atmosphere, the monohydrate form (MSN) was obtained from any hydrates, meaning that these grinding conditions favored the dehydration of superior hydrates. The grinding process carried out in the presence of liquid nitrogen (Method B) led to further hydration of the starting materials: new hydrate forms were identified as one pentahydrate form and one hexahydrate form. The hydration was caused by the condensation of the atmospheric water on sodium naproxen particles by liquid nitrogen and by the grinding forces that created a close contact between water and drug. The simultaneous disruption of the crystals, occurring during grinding, and their close contact with water molecules promoted the conversion in higher hydrates. Under the Method D, it was possible to highlight a certain tendency to hydration probably due to a rearrangement of water already present into the hydrates, but results were substantially different from Method B. Thus, summarizing, the different SN forms behave differently under different grinding and environmental conditions.
|Titolo:||Changes in the solid state of anhydrous and hydrated forms of sodium naproxen under different grinding and environmental conditions: evidence of the formation of new hydrated forms.|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Articolo|
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|64. CHANGES IN THE SOLID STATE OF SN UNDER DIFFERENT GRINDING AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS.pdf||Versione Editoriale||NON PUBBLICO - Accesso privato/ristretto||Utenti riconosciuti Richiedi una copia|