The ciliate Climacostomum virens produces the metabolite climacostol that displays antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity on human and rodent tumor cells. Given its potential as a backbone in pharmacological studies, we used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate how the xenobiotic climacostol affects biological systems in vivo at the organismal level. Food administration with climacostol demonstrated its harmful role during larvae developmental stages but not pupation. The midgut of eclosed larvae showed apoptosis and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus demonstrating gastrointestinal toxicity. Climacostol did not affect enteroendocrine cell proliferation, suggesting moderate damage that does not initiate the repairing program. The fact that climacostol increased brain ROS and inhibited the proliferation of neural cells revealed a systemic (neurotoxic) role of this harmful substance. In this line, we found lower expression of relevant antioxidant enzymes in the larvae and impaired mitochondrial activity. Adult offsprings presented no major alterations in survival and mobility, as well the absence of abnormal phenotypes. However, mitochondrial activity and oviposition behavior was somewhat affected, indicating the chronic toxicity of climacostol, which continues moderately until adult stages. These results revealed for the first time the detrimental role of ingested climacostol in a non-target multicellular organism.

Exposure to the Natural Compound Climacostol Induces Cell Damage and Oxidative Stress in the Fruit Fly Drosophila melanogaster

Gabriele Lupidi;Enrico Marcantoni;
2024-01-01

Abstract

The ciliate Climacostomum virens produces the metabolite climacostol that displays antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity on human and rodent tumor cells. Given its potential as a backbone in pharmacological studies, we used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to evaluate how the xenobiotic climacostol affects biological systems in vivo at the organismal level. Food administration with climacostol demonstrated its harmful role during larvae developmental stages but not pupation. The midgut of eclosed larvae showed apoptosis and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus demonstrating gastrointestinal toxicity. Climacostol did not affect enteroendocrine cell proliferation, suggesting moderate damage that does not initiate the repairing program. The fact that climacostol increased brain ROS and inhibited the proliferation of neural cells revealed a systemic (neurotoxic) role of this harmful substance. In this line, we found lower expression of relevant antioxidant enzymes in the larvae and impaired mitochondrial activity. Adult offsprings presented no major alterations in survival and mobility, as well the absence of abnormal phenotypes. However, mitochondrial activity and oviposition behavior was somewhat affected, indicating the chronic toxicity of climacostol, which continues moderately until adult stages. These results revealed for the first time the detrimental role of ingested climacostol in a non-target multicellular organism.
2024
262
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11581/481765
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