This study addresses the refinement and revalidation of a composite pain scale that focuses on equine facial expressions and behavioural indicators as exhibitions of ophthalmic pain. This scale included only Behavioural and Facial and Ocular expression indicators and, compared to the first version of Equine Ophthalmic Pain Scale (EOPS), item descriptors and related ratings were changed. Thirteen horses with ocular diseases that required medical or surgical treatment were enroled (group P). In each animal, the refined EOPS (R-EOPS) was applied prior to any treatment (T0) and one week later (T7). The R-EOPS was applied twice, 7 days apart, to 16 healthy control horses (group C). Two 30-second videos were recorded each time to allow the retrospective analysis by eight observers. Inter-observer reliability of items was moderate or substantial (Krippendorff's alpha, Ka>0.40) while their intra-observer reliability was substantial or almost perfect for most items (Ka ≥0.61). Both inter- and intra-observer reliability of Total Score (TS) were however excellent (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients, ICC>0.75). The TS also showed good reproducibility (Kendall coefficient=0.786, ICC=0.684) and high consistency of its items (Cronbach's a=0.847). The comparison between groups as well as the sensitivity and specificity values supported the validity of the R-EOPS. In particular, for each extra point added to the TS, the risk of the horse having pain increased by more than two times (Odds Ratio=2.079, 95%CI=1.542-2.804; P<0.001). The Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis identified 6 as the threshold value of R-EOPS for discriminating horses with ocular pathology (sensitivity=83%, specificity=100%). This scale may be an effective tool for reliably assessing the pain level in horses with ophthalmic diseases and potentially guiding pain management although it still requires large-scale application and external validation.

Refinement and revalidation of the Equine Ophthalmic Pain Scale: R-EOPS a new scale for ocular pain assessment in horses

Menchetti, L
2024-01-01

Abstract

This study addresses the refinement and revalidation of a composite pain scale that focuses on equine facial expressions and behavioural indicators as exhibitions of ophthalmic pain. This scale included only Behavioural and Facial and Ocular expression indicators and, compared to the first version of Equine Ophthalmic Pain Scale (EOPS), item descriptors and related ratings were changed. Thirteen horses with ocular diseases that required medical or surgical treatment were enroled (group P). In each animal, the refined EOPS (R-EOPS) was applied prior to any treatment (T0) and one week later (T7). The R-EOPS was applied twice, 7 days apart, to 16 healthy control horses (group C). Two 30-second videos were recorded each time to allow the retrospective analysis by eight observers. Inter-observer reliability of items was moderate or substantial (Krippendorff's alpha, Ka>0.40) while their intra-observer reliability was substantial or almost perfect for most items (Ka ≥0.61). Both inter- and intra-observer reliability of Total Score (TS) were however excellent (Intraclass Correlation Coefficients, ICC>0.75). The TS also showed good reproducibility (Kendall coefficient=0.786, ICC=0.684) and high consistency of its items (Cronbach's a=0.847). The comparison between groups as well as the sensitivity and specificity values supported the validity of the R-EOPS. In particular, for each extra point added to the TS, the risk of the horse having pain increased by more than two times (Odds Ratio=2.079, 95%CI=1.542-2.804; P<0.001). The Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis identified 6 as the threshold value of R-EOPS for discriminating horses with ocular pathology (sensitivity=83%, specificity=100%). This scale may be an effective tool for reliably assessing the pain level in horses with ophthalmic diseases and potentially guiding pain management although it still requires large-scale application and external validation.
2024
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11581/480289
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