Background The different wavelengths of solar radiation incident on earth [herein: Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) , Ultra Violet-A (UV-A) and Ultra Violet-B (UV-B)] and their spectral balance not only have an impact on plants’ growth, morphology and physiology, but also are important for the quality and quantity of plant secondary metabolites. Material and methods In an outdoor study we addressed the effects of PAR intensity and UV-A and UV-B on the growth, yield, phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and essential oil composition of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. The experiment was performed with split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. During the growth, two PAR intensities (ambient PAR and reduced PAR) and four UV treatments (ambient UV, enhanced UV-A, enhanced UV-B and enhanced UVA + B) were applied. Results High PAR intensity decreased the length and width of leaf, the height of plant and fresh weight of aerial parts, and increased the dry weight of aerial parts. Enhanced UV-B irradiation was associated with reduced plant height, leaf expansion and fresh and dry weight of aerial parts. Interestingly, the negative effect of UV-B radiation on morphology and growth of plant was largely alleviated by high PAR intensity. The amount of total phenols and fla- vonoids, antioxidant activity and essential oil production of P. graveolens strongly increased with the increase of UV-B irradiation and PAR. On the other hand, UV-A radiation did not significantly influence total phenol and flavonoid con- tent, antioxidant activity and essential oil composition. Moreover, the combination of high PAR intensity and UV-B led to further increases in total flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity. Both high PAR intensity and enhanced UV-B increased the percentage of geraniol in essential oil, leading to a slight reduction of citronellol/geraniol ratio which is a marker of quality for rose geranium essential oil. Conclusions Overall, we conclude that UV-B irradiation was associated to reduction of plant growth and yield, while, the adverse effect of UV-B irradiation on the plant was mitigated by high PAR intensity. On the other hand, both high PAR and enhanced UV-B boosted the production of phenols, flavonoids and essential oil. Considering that the lower citronellol/geraniol ratio is the most important indicator for the economic value of rose geranium essential oil, reduc- ing citronellol/geraniol ratio under enhanced UV-B radiation and/or high PAR is likely to be favorable.

UV-A and UV-B combined with photosynthetically active radiation change plant growth, antioxidant capacity and essential oil composition of Pelargonium graveolens

Filippo Maggi
Ultimo
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background The different wavelengths of solar radiation incident on earth [herein: Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) , Ultra Violet-A (UV-A) and Ultra Violet-B (UV-B)] and their spectral balance not only have an impact on plants’ growth, morphology and physiology, but also are important for the quality and quantity of plant secondary metabolites. Material and methods In an outdoor study we addressed the effects of PAR intensity and UV-A and UV-B on the growth, yield, phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and essential oil composition of Pelargonium graveolens L’Hér. The experiment was performed with split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. During the growth, two PAR intensities (ambient PAR and reduced PAR) and four UV treatments (ambient UV, enhanced UV-A, enhanced UV-B and enhanced UVA + B) were applied. Results High PAR intensity decreased the length and width of leaf, the height of plant and fresh weight of aerial parts, and increased the dry weight of aerial parts. Enhanced UV-B irradiation was associated with reduced plant height, leaf expansion and fresh and dry weight of aerial parts. Interestingly, the negative effect of UV-B radiation on morphology and growth of plant was largely alleviated by high PAR intensity. The amount of total phenols and fla- vonoids, antioxidant activity and essential oil production of P. graveolens strongly increased with the increase of UV-B irradiation and PAR. On the other hand, UV-A radiation did not significantly influence total phenol and flavonoid con- tent, antioxidant activity and essential oil composition. Moreover, the combination of high PAR intensity and UV-B led to further increases in total flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity. Both high PAR intensity and enhanced UV-B increased the percentage of geraniol in essential oil, leading to a slight reduction of citronellol/geraniol ratio which is a marker of quality for rose geranium essential oil. Conclusions Overall, we conclude that UV-B irradiation was associated to reduction of plant growth and yield, while, the adverse effect of UV-B irradiation on the plant was mitigated by high PAR intensity. On the other hand, both high PAR and enhanced UV-B boosted the production of phenols, flavonoids and essential oil. Considering that the lower citronellol/geraniol ratio is the most important indicator for the economic value of rose geranium essential oil, reduc- ing citronellol/geraniol ratio under enhanced UV-B radiation and/or high PAR is likely to be favorable.
2023
262
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11581/476763
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