Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have many exciting properties that make their use in a continuous increase in various biomedical, industrial, and agricultural applications. This is associated with accumulation in the aquatic ecosystems and fish exposure with consequent deleterious effects. To determine the potential of thymol to counteract the immunotoxic effects of ZnO-NPs, Oreochromis niloticus was exposed to ZnO-NPs (⅕ LC50 =1.14 mg/L, for 28 days) with or without feeding a thymol-incorporated diet (1 or 2 g/kg diet). Our data demonstrated a reduction of aquaria water quality, leukopenia, and lymphopenia with a decrease in serum total protein, albumin, and globulin levels in exposed fish. At the same time, the stress indices (cortisol and glucose) were elevated in response to ZnO-NPs exposure. The exposed fish also revealed a decline in serum immunoglobulins, nitric oxide, and the activities of lysozyme and myeloperoxidase, in addition to reduced resistance to the Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. The RT-PCR analysis showed downregulation of antioxidant (SOD) superoxide dismutase and (CAT) catalase gene expression in the liver tissue with overexpression of the immune-related genes (TNF-α and IL-1β). Importantly, we found that thymol markedly protected against ZnO-NPs-induced immunotoxicity in fish co-supplemented with thymol (1 or 2 g/kg diet) in a dose-dependent manner. Our data confirm the immunoprotective and antibacterial effects of thymol in ZnO-NPs exposed fish, supporting the potential utility of thymol as a possible immunostimulant agent.

Modulatory effect of thymol on the immune response and susceptibility to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in Nile tilapia fish exposed to zinc oxide nanoparticles

Alessandro, Di Cerbo
Penultimo
;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have many exciting properties that make their use in a continuous increase in various biomedical, industrial, and agricultural applications. This is associated with accumulation in the aquatic ecosystems and fish exposure with consequent deleterious effects. To determine the potential of thymol to counteract the immunotoxic effects of ZnO-NPs, Oreochromis niloticus was exposed to ZnO-NPs (⅕ LC50 =1.14 mg/L, for 28 days) with or without feeding a thymol-incorporated diet (1 or 2 g/kg diet). Our data demonstrated a reduction of aquaria water quality, leukopenia, and lymphopenia with a decrease in serum total protein, albumin, and globulin levels in exposed fish. At the same time, the stress indices (cortisol and glucose) were elevated in response to ZnO-NPs exposure. The exposed fish also revealed a decline in serum immunoglobulins, nitric oxide, and the activities of lysozyme and myeloperoxidase, in addition to reduced resistance to the Aeromonas hydrophila challenge. The RT-PCR analysis showed downregulation of antioxidant (SOD) superoxide dismutase and (CAT) catalase gene expression in the liver tissue with overexpression of the immune-related genes (TNF-α and IL-1β). Importantly, we found that thymol markedly protected against ZnO-NPs-induced immunotoxicity in fish co-supplemented with thymol (1 or 2 g/kg diet) in a dose-dependent manner. Our data confirm the immunoprotective and antibacterial effects of thymol in ZnO-NPs exposed fish, supporting the potential utility of thymol as a possible immunostimulant agent.
2023
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11581/471722
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