The maintenance of a proper NAD+ pool is essential for cell survival, and tumor cells are particularly sensitive to changes in coenzyme levels. In this view, the inhibition of NAD+ biosynthesis is considered a promising therapeutic approach. Current research is mostly focused on targeting the enzymes nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT), which regulate NAD+ biosynthesis from nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, respectively. In several types of cancer cells, both enzymes are relevant for NAD+ biosynthesis, with NAPRT being responsible for cell resistance to NAMPT inhibition. While potent NAMPT inhibitors have been developed, only a few weak NAPRT inhibitors have been identified so far, essentially due to the lack of an easy and fast screening assay. Here we present a continuous coupled fluorometric assay whereby the product of the NAPRT-catalyzed reaction is enzymatically converted to NADH, and NADH formation is measured fluorometrically. The assay can be adapted to screen compounds that interfere with NADH excitation and emission wavelengths by coupling NADH formation to the cycling reduction of resazurin to resorufin, which is monitored at longer wavelengths. The assay system was validated by confirming the inhibitory effect of some NA-related compounds on purified human recombinant NAPRT. In particular, 2-hydroxynicotinic acid, 2-amminonicotinic acid, 2-fluoronicotinic acid, pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, and salicylic acid were confirmed as NAPRT inhibitors, with Ki ranging from 149 to 348 µM. Both 2-hydroxynicotinic acid and pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid were found to sensitize OVCAR-5 cells to the NAMPT inhibitor FK866 by decreasing viability and intracellular NAD+ levels.

A Versatile Continuous Fluorometric Enzymatic Assay for Targeting Nicotinate Phosphoribosyltransferase

Riccardo Petrelli;Loredana Cappellacci;Fabio Del Bello;
2023-01-01

Abstract

The maintenance of a proper NAD+ pool is essential for cell survival, and tumor cells are particularly sensitive to changes in coenzyme levels. In this view, the inhibition of NAD+ biosynthesis is considered a promising therapeutic approach. Current research is mostly focused on targeting the enzymes nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and nicotinate phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT), which regulate NAD+ biosynthesis from nicotinamide and nicotinic acid, respectively. In several types of cancer cells, both enzymes are relevant for NAD+ biosynthesis, with NAPRT being responsible for cell resistance to NAMPT inhibition. While potent NAMPT inhibitors have been developed, only a few weak NAPRT inhibitors have been identified so far, essentially due to the lack of an easy and fast screening assay. Here we present a continuous coupled fluorometric assay whereby the product of the NAPRT-catalyzed reaction is enzymatically converted to NADH, and NADH formation is measured fluorometrically. The assay can be adapted to screen compounds that interfere with NADH excitation and emission wavelengths by coupling NADH formation to the cycling reduction of resazurin to resorufin, which is monitored at longer wavelengths. The assay system was validated by confirming the inhibitory effect of some NA-related compounds on purified human recombinant NAPRT. In particular, 2-hydroxynicotinic acid, 2-amminonicotinic acid, 2-fluoronicotinic acid, pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, and salicylic acid were confirmed as NAPRT inhibitors, with Ki ranging from 149 to 348 µM. Both 2-hydroxynicotinic acid and pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid were found to sensitize OVCAR-5 cells to the NAMPT inhibitor FK866 by decreasing viability and intracellular NAD+ levels.
2023
262
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11581/468834
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