A new analytical method for the determination of six volatile short and medium-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, isobutyric, isovaleric, hexanoic, and octanoic acids) through liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether, followed by GC-FID analysis, was developed and validated. The extraction conditions were optimized by evaluating the effect of the number of extractions (1 to 3) and the effect of the addition of salts (NaH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4/NaH2PO4) to increase the concentration of the analytes in the ethyl ether phase. Results showed that a single extraction allows obtaining the highest sensitivity (due to the impossibility of evaporating the solvent to avoid losses of the analytes). The use of salting out agents, in particular, NaH2PO4, showed an important increase in the extraction extent, on average, 1.5 times higher as compared to the extraction performed without salt. The proposed method is rapid, requiring a total of 30 min for preparation and analysis, and it makes use of small amounts of sample (500 µL) and solvent (400 µL). The method was then applied to quantify the analytes in 5 white wines and 5 red wines, allowing to highlight some clear differences between red and white wines, with the red ones having a significantly higher amount of acetic acid (715.7 ± 142.3 mg/L in red wines and 351.5 ± 21.2 mg/L in white wines) and the white wines having a significantly higher amount of hexanoic and octanoic acid (6.1 ± 3.0 mg/L and 2.6 ± 0.8 mg/L, respectively, are the mean concentrations in white wines, and 4.7 ± 0.8 and 2.4 ± 0.4 mg/L, respectively, are the mean concentrations in red wines).

Development and Validation of a New GC-FID Method for the Determination of Short and Medium Chain Free Fatty Acids in Wine

Lenti, Lucia;Fiorini, Dennis
Ultimo
2022-01-01

Abstract

A new analytical method for the determination of six volatile short and medium-chain fatty acids (acetic, propionic, isobutyric, isovaleric, hexanoic, and octanoic acids) through liquid-liquid extraction with diethyl ether, followed by GC-FID analysis, was developed and validated. The extraction conditions were optimized by evaluating the effect of the number of extractions (1 to 3) and the effect of the addition of salts (NaH2PO4, (NH4)2SO4, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4/NaH2PO4) to increase the concentration of the analytes in the ethyl ether phase. Results showed that a single extraction allows obtaining the highest sensitivity (due to the impossibility of evaporating the solvent to avoid losses of the analytes). The use of salting out agents, in particular, NaH2PO4, showed an important increase in the extraction extent, on average, 1.5 times higher as compared to the extraction performed without salt. The proposed method is rapid, requiring a total of 30 min for preparation and analysis, and it makes use of small amounts of sample (500 µL) and solvent (400 µL). The method was then applied to quantify the analytes in 5 white wines and 5 red wines, allowing to highlight some clear differences between red and white wines, with the red ones having a significantly higher amount of acetic acid (715.7 ± 142.3 mg/L in red wines and 351.5 ± 21.2 mg/L in white wines) and the white wines having a significantly higher amount of hexanoic and octanoic acid (6.1 ± 3.0 mg/L and 2.6 ± 0.8 mg/L, respectively, are the mean concentrations in white wines, and 4.7 ± 0.8 and 2.4 ± 0.4 mg/L, respectively, are the mean concentrations in red wines).
2022
262
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11581/468015
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