The neuropeptide S (NPS) is the endogenous ligand of the NPS receptor (NPSR). The NPSR is widely expressed in brain regions that process emotional and affective behavior. NPS possesses a unique physio-pharmacological profile, being anxiolytic and promoting arousal at the same time. Intracerebroventricular NPS decreased alcohol consumption in alcohol-preferring rats with no effect in non-preferring control animals. This outcome is most probably linked to the anxiolytic properties of NPS, since alcohol preference is often associated with high levels of basal anxiety and intense stress-reactivity. In addition, NPSR mRNA was overexpressed during ethanol withdrawal and the anxiolytic-like effects of NPS were increased in rodents with a history of alcohol dependence. In line with these preclinical findings, a polymorphism of the NPSR gene was associated with anxiety traits contributing to alcohol use disorders in humans. NPS also potentiated the reinstatement of cocaine and ethanol seeking induced by drug-paired environmental stimuli and the blockade of NPSR reduced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. Altogether, the work conducted so far indicates the NPS/NPSR system as a potential target to develop new treatments for alcohol and cocaine abuse. An NPSR agonist would be indicated to help individuals to quit alcohol consumption and to alleviate withdrawal syndrome, while NPSR antagonists would be indicated to prevent relapse to alcohol- and cocaine-seeking behavior.

A Role for Neuropeptide S in Alcohol and Cocaine Seeking

Cannella, Nazzareno;Borruto, Anna Maria;Petrella, Michele;Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria;Soverchia, Laura;Cifani, Carlo;De Carlo, Sara;Domi, Esi;Ubaldi, Massimo
Ultimo
2022

Abstract

The neuropeptide S (NPS) is the endogenous ligand of the NPS receptor (NPSR). The NPSR is widely expressed in brain regions that process emotional and affective behavior. NPS possesses a unique physio-pharmacological profile, being anxiolytic and promoting arousal at the same time. Intracerebroventricular NPS decreased alcohol consumption in alcohol-preferring rats with no effect in non-preferring control animals. This outcome is most probably linked to the anxiolytic properties of NPS, since alcohol preference is often associated with high levels of basal anxiety and intense stress-reactivity. In addition, NPSR mRNA was overexpressed during ethanol withdrawal and the anxiolytic-like effects of NPS were increased in rodents with a history of alcohol dependence. In line with these preclinical findings, a polymorphism of the NPSR gene was associated with anxiety traits contributing to alcohol use disorders in humans. NPS also potentiated the reinstatement of cocaine and ethanol seeking induced by drug-paired environmental stimuli and the blockade of NPSR reduced reinstatement of cocaine-seeking. Altogether, the work conducted so far indicates the NPS/NPSR system as a potential target to develop new treatments for alcohol and cocaine abuse. An NPSR agonist would be indicated to help individuals to quit alcohol consumption and to alleviate withdrawal syndrome, while NPSR antagonists would be indicated to prevent relapse to alcohol- and cocaine-seeking behavior.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11581/466753
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