Innovative models for medical research are strongly required nowadays. Convincing evidence supports dog as the most suitable spontaneous model for several human genetic diseases. Decades of studies on dog genome allowed the identification of hundreds of mutations causing genetic disorders, many of which are proposed as counterparts responsible for human diseases. Traditionally, the murine model is the most extensively used in human translational research. However, this species shows large physiological differences from humans, and it is kept under a controlled artificial environment. Conversely, canine genetic disorders often show pathophysiological and clinical features highly resembling the human counterpart. In addition, dogs share the same environment with humans; therefore, they are naturally exposed to many risk factors. Thus, different branches of translational medicine aim to study spontaneously occurring diseases in dogs to provide a more reliable model for human disorders. This review offers a comprehensive overview of the knowledge and resources available today for all the researchers involved in the field of dog-human translational medicine. Some of the main successful examples from dog-human translational genomics are reported, such as the canine association studies which helped to identify the causal mutation in the human counterpart. We also illustrated the ongoing projects aiming to create public canine big datasets. Finally, specific online databases are discussed along with several information resources that can speed up clinical translational research.

Dog-human translational genomics: state of the art and genomic resources

Pallotti, Stefano
Primo
;
Marchegiani, Andrea;Cerquetella, Matteo
Penultimo
;
Napolioni, Valerio
Ultimo
2022-01-01

Abstract

Innovative models for medical research are strongly required nowadays. Convincing evidence supports dog as the most suitable spontaneous model for several human genetic diseases. Decades of studies on dog genome allowed the identification of hundreds of mutations causing genetic disorders, many of which are proposed as counterparts responsible for human diseases. Traditionally, the murine model is the most extensively used in human translational research. However, this species shows large physiological differences from humans, and it is kept under a controlled artificial environment. Conversely, canine genetic disorders often show pathophysiological and clinical features highly resembling the human counterpart. In addition, dogs share the same environment with humans; therefore, they are naturally exposed to many risk factors. Thus, different branches of translational medicine aim to study spontaneously occurring diseases in dogs to provide a more reliable model for human disorders. This review offers a comprehensive overview of the knowledge and resources available today for all the researchers involved in the field of dog-human translational medicine. Some of the main successful examples from dog-human translational genomics are reported, such as the canine association studies which helped to identify the causal mutation in the human counterpart. We also illustrated the ongoing projects aiming to create public canine big datasets. Finally, specific online databases are discussed along with several information resources that can speed up clinical translational research.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11581/465832
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