Brain and retinal organoids are functional and dynamic in vitro three-dimensional (3D) structures derived from pluripotent stem cells that spontaneously organize themselves to their in vivo counterparts. Here, we review the main literature data of how these organoids have been developed through different protocols and how they have been technically analyzed. Moreover, this paper reviews recent advances in using organoids to model neurological and retinal diseases, considering their potential for translational applications but also pointing out their limitations. Since the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and blood–retinal barrier (BRB) are understood to play a fundamental role respectively in brain and eye functions, both in health and in disease, we provide an overview of the progress in the development techniques of in vitro models as reliable and predictive screening tools for BBB and BRB-penetrating compounds. Furthermore, we propose potential future directions for brain and retinal organoids, in which dedicated biobanks will represent a novel tool for neuroscience and ophthalmology research.

Brain and Retinal Organoids for Disease Modeling: The Importance of In Vitro Blood–Brain and Retinal Barriers Studies

Martinelli I.
;
Tayebati S. K.;Tomassoni D.;Nittari G.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Brain and retinal organoids are functional and dynamic in vitro three-dimensional (3D) structures derived from pluripotent stem cells that spontaneously organize themselves to their in vivo counterparts. Here, we review the main literature data of how these organoids have been developed through different protocols and how they have been technically analyzed. Moreover, this paper reviews recent advances in using organoids to model neurological and retinal diseases, considering their potential for translational applications but also pointing out their limitations. Since the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and blood–retinal barrier (BRB) are understood to play a fundamental role respectively in brain and eye functions, both in health and in disease, we provide an overview of the progress in the development techniques of in vitro models as reliable and predictive screening tools for BBB and BRB-penetrating compounds. Furthermore, we propose potential future directions for brain and retinal organoids, in which dedicated biobanks will represent a novel tool for neuroscience and ophthalmology research.
2022
262
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11581/461340
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