Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of adult-onset dementia is characterized by a progressive decline of cognitive functions accompanied by behavioral manifestations. The main class of drugs currently used for the treatment of AD are acetylcholinesterase/cholinesterase inhibitors (ChE-Is). The first ChE-I licensed for symptomatic treatment of AD was tacrine. The ChE-Is currently available in the market are donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine as tacrine is no longer in use, due to its hepatotoxicity. According to mechanism of action the ChE-Is are classified as short-acting or reversible agents such as tacrine, donepezil, and galantamine, as intermediate-acting or pseudo-irreversible agent such as rivastigmine. Overall, the efficacy of the three ChE-Is available in the market is similar and the benefit of administration of these compounds is mild and may not be clinically significant. Due to gastrointestinal side effects of these drugs, medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical delivery studies have investigated solutions to improve the pharmacological activity of these compounds. In spite of the limited activity of ChE-Is, waiting for more effective approaches, these drugs still represent a pharmacotherapeutic resource for the treatment of AD. Other approaches in which ChE-Is were investigated is in their use in combination with other classes of drugs such as cholinergic precursors, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and antioxidant agents. After many years from the introduction in therapy of ChE-Is, the combination with other classes of drugs may represent the chance for a renewed interest of ChE-Is in the treatment of adult-onset dementia disorders.

Efficacy of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors in Alzheimer's disease

Marucci G.
Primo
;
Buccioni M.;Dal Ben D.;Lambertucci C.;Volpini R.;Amenta F.
Ultimo
2021-01-01

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common cause of adult-onset dementia is characterized by a progressive decline of cognitive functions accompanied by behavioral manifestations. The main class of drugs currently used for the treatment of AD are acetylcholinesterase/cholinesterase inhibitors (ChE-Is). The first ChE-I licensed for symptomatic treatment of AD was tacrine. The ChE-Is currently available in the market are donepezil, rivastigmine and galantamine as tacrine is no longer in use, due to its hepatotoxicity. According to mechanism of action the ChE-Is are classified as short-acting or reversible agents such as tacrine, donepezil, and galantamine, as intermediate-acting or pseudo-irreversible agent such as rivastigmine. Overall, the efficacy of the three ChE-Is available in the market is similar and the benefit of administration of these compounds is mild and may not be clinically significant. Due to gastrointestinal side effects of these drugs, medicinal chemistry and pharmaceutical delivery studies have investigated solutions to improve the pharmacological activity of these compounds. In spite of the limited activity of ChE-Is, waiting for more effective approaches, these drugs still represent a pharmacotherapeutic resource for the treatment of AD. Other approaches in which ChE-Is were investigated is in their use in combination with other classes of drugs such as cholinergic precursors, N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists and antioxidant agents. After many years from the introduction in therapy of ChE-Is, the combination with other classes of drugs may represent the chance for a renewed interest of ChE-Is in the treatment of adult-onset dementia disorders.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11581/457276
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