Background & aims: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related dementias represent a major and increasing global health challenge. Unhealthy diet and lifestyle can unbalance the intestinal microbiota composition and, consequently energy metabolism, contributing to AD pathogenesis. Impairment of cerebral cholesterol metabolism occurs in both aging and AD, and lipid-lowering agents have been associated to a lower risk of neurodegenerative diseases, but the link between blood lipid profile and AD remains a matter of debate. Recently, probiotics have emerged as a promising and safe strategy to manipulate gut microbiota composition and increase the host health status through a multi-level mechanism that is currently under investigation. Specifically, oral supplementation with a multi-strain probiotic formulation (SLAB51) reduced amyloid beta aggregates and brain damages in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD). Treated mice showed improved cognitive functions in response to an enrichment of gut anti-inflammatory metabolites, increased plasma concentrations of neuroprotective gut hormones, and ameliorated glucose uptake and metabolism. Methods: This work focuses on the evaluation of the effects of SLAB51 chronic administration on lipid metabolism in 3xTg-AD mice and the respective wild-type counterpart. On this purpose, 8 weeks old mice were orally administered with SLAB51 for 4 and 12 months to analyze the plasma lipid profile (using lipidomic analyses and enzymatic colorimetric assays), along with the cerebral and hepatic expression levels of key regulators of cholesterol metabolism (through Western blotting and ELISA). Results: Upon probiotics administration, cholesterol biosynthesis was inhibited in AD mice with a process involving sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and liver X receptors mediated pathways. Decreased plasma and brain concentration of 27-hydroxycholesterol and increased brain expression of cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase indicated that alternative pathways of bile acid synthesis are influenced. The plasmatic increase of arachidonic acid in treated AD mice reflects dynamic interactions among several actors of a complex inflammatory response, in which polyunsaturated fatty acids can compete each other and simultaneously co-operate in the resolution of inflammation. Conclusions: These evidence, together with the hypocholesterolemic effects, the ameliorated fatty acids profile and the decreased omega 6/omega 3 ratio successfully demonstrated that microbiota modulation through probiotics can positively change lipid composition in AD mice, with arachidonic acid representing one important hub metabolite in the interactions among probiotic-induced lipid profile changes, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation.

Gut microbiota modulation in Alzheimer's disease: Focus on lipid metabolism

Bonfili, Laura
;
Cuccioloni, Massimiliano;Gong, Chunmei;Cecarini, Valentina;Spina, Michele;Zheng, Yadong;Angeletti, Mauro;Eleuteri, Anna Maria
2022

Abstract

Background & aims: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related dementias represent a major and increasing global health challenge. Unhealthy diet and lifestyle can unbalance the intestinal microbiota composition and, consequently energy metabolism, contributing to AD pathogenesis. Impairment of cerebral cholesterol metabolism occurs in both aging and AD, and lipid-lowering agents have been associated to a lower risk of neurodegenerative diseases, but the link between blood lipid profile and AD remains a matter of debate. Recently, probiotics have emerged as a promising and safe strategy to manipulate gut microbiota composition and increase the host health status through a multi-level mechanism that is currently under investigation. Specifically, oral supplementation with a multi-strain probiotic formulation (SLAB51) reduced amyloid beta aggregates and brain damages in a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD). Treated mice showed improved cognitive functions in response to an enrichment of gut anti-inflammatory metabolites, increased plasma concentrations of neuroprotective gut hormones, and ameliorated glucose uptake and metabolism. Methods: This work focuses on the evaluation of the effects of SLAB51 chronic administration on lipid metabolism in 3xTg-AD mice and the respective wild-type counterpart. On this purpose, 8 weeks old mice were orally administered with SLAB51 for 4 and 12 months to analyze the plasma lipid profile (using lipidomic analyses and enzymatic colorimetric assays), along with the cerebral and hepatic expression levels of key regulators of cholesterol metabolism (through Western blotting and ELISA). Results: Upon probiotics administration, cholesterol biosynthesis was inhibited in AD mice with a process involving sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c and liver X receptors mediated pathways. Decreased plasma and brain concentration of 27-hydroxycholesterol and increased brain expression of cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase indicated that alternative pathways of bile acid synthesis are influenced. The plasmatic increase of arachidonic acid in treated AD mice reflects dynamic interactions among several actors of a complex inflammatory response, in which polyunsaturated fatty acids can compete each other and simultaneously co-operate in the resolution of inflammation. Conclusions: These evidence, together with the hypocholesterolemic effects, the ameliorated fatty acids profile and the decreased omega 6/omega 3 ratio successfully demonstrated that microbiota modulation through probiotics can positively change lipid composition in AD mice, with arachidonic acid representing one important hub metabolite in the interactions among probiotic-induced lipid profile changes, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation.
File in questo prodotto:
Non ci sono file associati a questo prodotto.

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11581/457176
 Attenzione

Attenzione! I dati visualizzati non sono stati sottoposti a validazione da parte dell'ateneo

Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? ND
  • Scopus 2
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? ND
social impact