Thiacloprid (TCP) is a widely used neonicotinoid insecticide with a probable toxic hazard to animals and human beings. This hazard has intensified the demand for natural compounds to alleviate the expected toxic insults. This study aimed at determining whether astaxanthin (ASX) could mitigate the hepatotoxic effect of TCP and diminish its suppressive effect on immune responses in rats. Animals received TCP by gavage at 62.1 mg/kg (1/10th LD50) with or without ASX at 40 mg/kg for 60 days. Intoxicated rats showed modulation of serum transaminases and protein profiles. The hemagglutination antibody titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and the number of plaque-forming cells in the spleen were reduced. The cell-mediated immunity and phagocytosis were suppressed, while serum interleukins IL-1 , IL-6, and IL-10 were elevated. Additionally, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine levels were increased in the liver, spleen, and thymus, with depletion of glutathione and suppression of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the high mobility group box protein 1 genes were upregulated with histomorphological alterations in the aforementioned organs. Cotreatment with ASX markedly ameliorated the toxic effects of TCP, and all markers showed a regression trend towards control values. Collectively, our data suggest that the protective effects of ASX on the liver and immune system of TCP-treated animals depend upon improving the antioxidant status and relieving the inflammatory response, and thus it may be used as a promising therapeutic agent to provide superior hepato- and immunoprotection.

Astaxanthin Mitigates Thiacloprid-Induced Liver Injury and Immunotoxicity in Male Rats

Alessandro Di Cerbo
;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Thiacloprid (TCP) is a widely used neonicotinoid insecticide with a probable toxic hazard to animals and human beings. This hazard has intensified the demand for natural compounds to alleviate the expected toxic insults. This study aimed at determining whether astaxanthin (ASX) could mitigate the hepatotoxic effect of TCP and diminish its suppressive effect on immune responses in rats. Animals received TCP by gavage at 62.1 mg/kg (1/10th LD50) with or without ASX at 40 mg/kg for 60 days. Intoxicated rats showed modulation of serum transaminases and protein profiles. The hemagglutination antibody titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and the number of plaque-forming cells in the spleen were reduced. The cell-mediated immunity and phagocytosis were suppressed, while serum interleukins IL-1 , IL-6, and IL-10 were elevated. Additionally, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, and 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine levels were increased in the liver, spleen, and thymus, with depletion of glutathione and suppression of superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and the high mobility group box protein 1 genes were upregulated with histomorphological alterations in the aforementioned organs. Cotreatment with ASX markedly ameliorated the toxic effects of TCP, and all markers showed a regression trend towards control values. Collectively, our data suggest that the protective effects of ASX on the liver and immune system of TCP-treated animals depend upon improving the antioxidant status and relieving the inflammatory response, and thus it may be used as a promising therapeutic agent to provide superior hepato- and immunoprotection.
2021
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11581/453902
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