Carlina acaulis root essential oil (EO) is one of the most potent mosquito larvicides (LC50 < 2 ppm). This EO is mainly composed of carlina oxide (> 90%). Poor water solubility and rapid degradation from UV light and oxygen in the environment limit the real-world use of this EO. Herein, we developed nanocarrier-based formulations, namely micro- and nanoemulsions (ME and NE, respectively) containing C. acaulis EO or carlina oxide (both at 0.5%) as active ingredients (a.i.). The larvicidal activity of ME and NE was evaluated against Culex quinquefasciatus. The highest larvicidal activity was achieved by the ME containing 0.5% of the EO (M1); its LC50(90) was 579.1 (791.3) µL L−1. Sublethal effects of this ME and its a.i. were assessed testing both at the LC16, LC30, LC50 and LC90 on mosquito larvae exposed to each product for 1–7 h, and then monitoring mortality for 18 days. At variance with the EO, ME application, even at LC16, led to 100% mortality at 18 days. The EO and its encapsulated form were scarcely toxic to human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human fibroblast (NHF A12) cell lines. The acute toxicity of C. acaulis EO and its ME (M1) was also evaluated in Wistar rats through oral administration; EO LD50 was 1098 mg kg−1 bw, whereas its ME, even at 5000 mg kg−1 bw (considered the upper testing limit to establish safety to mammals), was not toxic. This study highlights the outstanding efficacy of C. acaulis EO ME for developing long-lasting and safe larvicides against Cx. quinquefasciatus.

Encapsulation of Carlina acaulis essential oil and carlina oxide to develop long-lasting mosquito larvicides: microemulsions vs. nanoemulsions

Giulia Bonacucina;Marco Cespi;Loredana Cappellacci;Riccardo Petrelli;Eleonora Spinozzi;Cristina Aguzzi;Laura Zeppa;Massimo Ubaldi;Filippo Maggi
Penultimo
;
2021-01-01

Abstract

Carlina acaulis root essential oil (EO) is one of the most potent mosquito larvicides (LC50 < 2 ppm). This EO is mainly composed of carlina oxide (> 90%). Poor water solubility and rapid degradation from UV light and oxygen in the environment limit the real-world use of this EO. Herein, we developed nanocarrier-based formulations, namely micro- and nanoemulsions (ME and NE, respectively) containing C. acaulis EO or carlina oxide (both at 0.5%) as active ingredients (a.i.). The larvicidal activity of ME and NE was evaluated against Culex quinquefasciatus. The highest larvicidal activity was achieved by the ME containing 0.5% of the EO (M1); its LC50(90) was 579.1 (791.3) µL L−1. Sublethal effects of this ME and its a.i. were assessed testing both at the LC16, LC30, LC50 and LC90 on mosquito larvae exposed to each product for 1–7 h, and then monitoring mortality for 18 days. At variance with the EO, ME application, even at LC16, led to 100% mortality at 18 days. The EO and its encapsulated form were scarcely toxic to human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human fibroblast (NHF A12) cell lines. The acute toxicity of C. acaulis EO and its ME (M1) was also evaluated in Wistar rats through oral administration; EO LD50 was 1098 mg kg−1 bw, whereas its ME, even at 5000 mg kg−1 bw (considered the upper testing limit to establish safety to mammals), was not toxic. This study highlights the outstanding efficacy of C. acaulis EO ME for developing long-lasting and safe larvicides against Cx. quinquefasciatus.
2021
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Journal of Pest Science (2021) vol. 94 n. 3 pp. 899-915.pdf

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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11581/447032
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