Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid extensively used as anti-woodworm agent and for indoor and outdoor pest control. The main route of human exposure is through fruit, vegetable and milk intake. Low dosage exposure to permethrin during neonatal brain development (from postnatal day 6 to postnatal day 21) leads to dopamine decrease in rat striatum nucleus, oxidative stress and behavioural changes linked to the development of Parkinson's like neurodegeneration later in life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of genes involved in the dopaminergic pathway and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in adolescent rats treated with permethrin during neonatal brain development. Furthermore, in order to shed light on the mechanisms associated with molecular impairments, in silico studies were performed. The outcomes show increased expression of genes related to the dopamine-synthesis pathway (Nurr1, Th, Snca), epigenetics (TET proteins and Mecp2) and exposure to toxicants (Pon1 and Pon2) in adolescent rats compared with control group. Furthermore, increased global 5mC and 5hmC levels were observed in the DNA extracted from striatum of early-life treated rats in comparison with controls. FAIRE-qPCR analysis shows that permethrin induces an enrichment of chromatin-free DNA at the level of Th and Nurr1 promoters, and ChIP-qPCR reveals a significant reduction in methylation levels at H3K9me3 position at both Th and Nurr1 promoter regions. In silico studies show that permethrin competes for the same two binding sites of known NURR1 agonists, with a lower binding free energy for permethrin, suggesting an important durable association of permethrin with the orphan receptor. Moreover, alpha-synuclein shows a strong affinity for NURR1, corroborating previous experimental outcomes on the interactions between them. This study focuses on an emerging role of early-life exposure to environmental pollutants in the regulation of late onset diseases through intriguing mechanisms that change crucial epigenetic patterns starting from adolescent age.

Early impairment of epigenetic pattern in neurodegeneration: Additional mechanisms behind pyrethroid toxicity

Bordoni L;Nasuti C;Fedeli D;Gabbianelli R.
2019-01-01

Abstract

Permethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid extensively used as anti-woodworm agent and for indoor and outdoor pest control. The main route of human exposure is through fruit, vegetable and milk intake. Low dosage exposure to permethrin during neonatal brain development (from postnatal day 6 to postnatal day 21) leads to dopamine decrease in rat striatum nucleus, oxidative stress and behavioural changes linked to the development of Parkinson's like neurodegeneration later in life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of genes involved in the dopaminergic pathway and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms in adolescent rats treated with permethrin during neonatal brain development. Furthermore, in order to shed light on the mechanisms associated with molecular impairments, in silico studies were performed. The outcomes show increased expression of genes related to the dopamine-synthesis pathway (Nurr1, Th, Snca), epigenetics (TET proteins and Mecp2) and exposure to toxicants (Pon1 and Pon2) in adolescent rats compared with control group. Furthermore, increased global 5mC and 5hmC levels were observed in the DNA extracted from striatum of early-life treated rats in comparison with controls. FAIRE-qPCR analysis shows that permethrin induces an enrichment of chromatin-free DNA at the level of Th and Nurr1 promoters, and ChIP-qPCR reveals a significant reduction in methylation levels at H3K9me3 position at both Th and Nurr1 promoter regions. In silico studies show that permethrin competes for the same two binding sites of known NURR1 agonists, with a lower binding free energy for permethrin, suggesting an important durable association of permethrin with the orphan receptor. Moreover, alpha-synuclein shows a strong affinity for NURR1, corroborating previous experimental outcomes on the interactions between them. This study focuses on an emerging role of early-life exposure to environmental pollutants in the regulation of late onset diseases through intriguing mechanisms that change crucial epigenetic patterns starting from adolescent age.
2019
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11581/429272
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