It is proposed to estimate wind velocity, Angle-Of-Attack (AOA) and Sideslip Angle (SSA) of a fixed-wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) using only kinematic relationships with a Kalman Filter (KF), avoiding the need to know aerodynamic models or other aircraft parameters. Assuming that measurements of airspeed and attitude of an UAV are available as inputs, a linear 4th order time-varying model of the UAV's longitudinal speed and the 3-D wind velocity is used to design a Kalman-filter driven by a GNSS velocity measurement airspeed sensor. An observability analysis shows that the states can be estimated along with an airspeed sensor calibration factor provided that the flight maneuvers are persistently exciting, i.e. the aircraft changes attitude. The theoretical analysis of the KF shows that global exponential stability of the estimation error is achieved under these conditions. The method is tested using experimental data from three different UAVs, using their legacy autopilot to provide basic estimates of UAV velocity and attitude. The results show that convergent estimates are achieved with typical flight patterns indicating that excitation resulting from the environment and normal flight operation is sufficient. Wind velocity estimates correlate well with observed winds at the ground. The validation of AOA and SSA estimates is preliminary, but indicate some degree of correlation between the AOA estimate and vertical accelerometer measurements, as would be expected since lift force can be modeled as a linear function of AOA in normal flight.
|Titolo:||On estimation of wind velocity, angle-of-attack and sideslip angle of small UAVs using standard sensors|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Contributo in atto di convegno su volume|