Evidence that endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may target metabolic disturbances, beyond interference with the functions of the endocrine systems has recently accumulated. Among EDCs, phthalate plasticizers like the diisodecyl phthalate (DiDP) are commonly found contaminants of aquatic environments and have been suggested to function as obesogens by activating peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), a subset of nuclear receptors (NRs) that act as metabolic sensors, playing pivotal roles in lipid homeostasis. However, little is known about the modulation of PPAR signaling pathways by DiDP in ﬁsh. In this study, we have ﬁrst investigated the ligand binding eﬃciency of DiDP to the ligand binding domains of PPARs and retinoid-X-receptor-α (RXRα) proteins in ﬁsh using a molecular docking approach. Furthermore, in silico predictions were integrated by in vitro experiments to show possible dose-relationship eﬀects of DiDP on PPAR:RXR-dependent gene expression pathways using sea bream hepatocytes. We observed that DiDP shows high binding eﬃciency with piscine PPARs demonstrating a greater preference for RXRα. Our studies also demonstrated the coordinate increased expression of PPARs and RXRα, as well as their downstream target genes in vitro. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed the strength of relationship between transcription of most genes involved in fatty acid metabolism and PPAR mRNA levels. In particular, fatty acid binding protein (FABP) was highly correlated to all PPARs. The results of this study suggest that DiDP can be considered an environmental stressor that activates PPAR:RXR signaling to promote long-term changes in lipid homeostasis leading to potential deleterious physiological consequences in teleost ﬁsh.
|Titolo:||Effects of Diisodecyl Phthalate on PPAR:RXR-Dependent Expression Pathways in Sea Bream Hepatocytes|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2015|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Articolo|