In the southeastern area of the Neogene-Quaternary Granada Basin, E - W trending normal faults crosscut 80 m-thick clay-bearing conglomerates and 30 - 40 m-thick carbonate grainstones containing centimeter-thick microconglomerate and sand interbeds. Three fundamental failure modes took place during fault nucleation: (1) phyllosilicate shear banding in the conglomerates, (2) jointing, mainly in the carbonate grainstones and (3) pressure solution in the carbonate matrix and grains of the microconglomerate and sand interbeds. Within the conglomerates, normal faults developed by pronounced clay smearing and, ultimately, cataclasis. Jointing also occurred within some of the pebbles surrounding the cataclastic rocks. In contrast, in the carbonate grainstones fault growth was characterized by predominant jointing and rock fragmentation, which localized in the extensional quadrants and/or releasing jogs of the evolving slip surfaces. Brecciation and cataclas is occurred only around the well-developed slip surfaces. Based upon their inner structure, we qualitatively assign a combined barrier-conduit fluid behavior to the tens of meters-throw normal faults juxtaposing the conglomerates against the carbonate grainstones. The inner fault cores inhibit fault-orthogonal fluid flow along their entire length. Instead, fault damage zones act as fluid barriers in the conglomerates, and as composite fluid conduits in the carbonate grainstones.

Inner structure and deformation mechanisms of normal faults in conglomerates and carbonate grainstones (Granada Basin, Betic Cordillera, Spain): Inferences on fault permeability

AGOSTA, FABRIZIO;RUSTICHELLI, ANDREA;TONDI, Emanuele;
2012

Abstract

In the southeastern area of the Neogene-Quaternary Granada Basin, E - W trending normal faults crosscut 80 m-thick clay-bearing conglomerates and 30 - 40 m-thick carbonate grainstones containing centimeter-thick microconglomerate and sand interbeds. Three fundamental failure modes took place during fault nucleation: (1) phyllosilicate shear banding in the conglomerates, (2) jointing, mainly in the carbonate grainstones and (3) pressure solution in the carbonate matrix and grains of the microconglomerate and sand interbeds. Within the conglomerates, normal faults developed by pronounced clay smearing and, ultimately, cataclasis. Jointing also occurred within some of the pebbles surrounding the cataclastic rocks. In contrast, in the carbonate grainstones fault growth was characterized by predominant jointing and rock fragmentation, which localized in the extensional quadrants and/or releasing jogs of the evolving slip surfaces. Brecciation and cataclas is occurred only around the well-developed slip surfaces. Based upon their inner structure, we qualitatively assign a combined barrier-conduit fluid behavior to the tens of meters-throw normal faults juxtaposing the conglomerates against the carbonate grainstones. The inner fault cores inhibit fault-orthogonal fluid flow along their entire length. Instead, fault damage zones act as fluid barriers in the conglomerates, and as composite fluid conduits in the carbonate grainstones.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11581/242403
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