In this paper, we provide an overview of the distribution and invasive status of non-native species in the Italian flora across its administrative regions, biogeographic regions and main land use types, and a synthesis of current knowledge on the threats they pose within the country. The information on non-native plant species collected during the project “A survey of the non-native Italian flora” was used to compile comprehensive regional and national databases. The number of nonnative species within a given administrative region increases in proportion to its size, resident population density and latitude, reaching the highest values in the intensively cultivated, heavily industrialized and urbanized Po Plain in northern Italy. The number of casual species is positively correlated with the number of yearly visitors in each region and negatively correlated with the proportion of mountainous terrain within the region. If compared with the Continental and Mediterranean biogeographic regions, the Alpine region yields the lowest number of non-native species and lowest proportion of casual species. The number and density of introduced species is highest in artificial land use types, particularly in urban areas. A negative impact is reported to be exerted by 203 species, most of which are agricultural weeds.
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