The industry of nutritional supplements is increasing worldwide, and health professionals and consumers demand evidence that supports the benefits and safe use of these supplements. This book aims to assess the clinical evidence of many nonvitamin and nonmineral (NVNM) nutritional supplements available in the market, in order to be a valuable decision-making tool. This book aims also to be an instrument for medical doctors, pharmacists as well as all health practitioners who did not receive comprehensive education regarding supplementation in order to assure their rational and safe use of NVNM supplements.The book firstly addresses the history, definition, and legislation of dietary supplements. In the second part, it focuses on nonessential nutrients: S-adenosyl-methionine, astaxanthin, lutein, and zeaxantine; chondroitin and glucosamine; choline; carnitines and l-cysteine; creatine; coenzyme Q10 and embelin; quercetin; lipoic acid; methylsulphonylmethane; melatonin; resveratrol; and rutin and curcumin. The third part of the book is devoted to the extracts from plants and algae. Forty-six plant and algae extracts are addressed, including: artichoke (Cynara scolymus); beet (Beta vulgaris); bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus); tailwort (Borago officinalis); brown algae (Phaeophyceae); cruciferous vegetables (Brassicaceae); elderberry (Sambucus nigra); fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum); feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium); ginseng (Panax ginseng); goji berry (Lycium barbarum); horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum); ispagula (Plantago ovata); konjac (Amorphophallus konjac); mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana); orthosiphon (Orthosiphon stamineus); rhodiola (Rhodiola rosea); St. John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum); turmeric (Curcuma longa); and pomegranate (Punica granatum). The fourth part of the book is dedicated to animal extracts including bee products (royal jelly and propolis), chitosan, and shark cartilage, while the fifth part addresses extracts from yeast and fungi (e.g., Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Monascus purpureus, Reishi mushrooms, and Ophiocordyceps sinensis). Chapters dedicated to NVNM nutritional supplements give information on sources, availability, relation with health, and possible interactions of these with other supplements, drugs, or foods, based on clinical evidence. Finally, the challenges of food supplements are discussed and future trends are presented. We are conscious of many other NVNM nutritional supplements that could have been addressed. We hope that this edition will be well received and that in the future, other NVNM nutritional supplements can be addressed.
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