Introduction - Nematodes of the genus Ascaridia (Dujardin, 1845) may cause fatal diseases in farm and exotic birds kept in captivity, including parrots. The aim of this work is to identify the species of Ascaridia that cause fatal lesions in Amazon Parrots and describe the hepatic and intestinal lesions. Description of the case - Materials and methods - Five Amazon parrots from the same aviary, including 1 Blue-fronted Ama- zon (Amazona aestiva aestiva), 1 Yellow-winged Amazon (Amazona aestiva xanthopteryx), 1 Red-spectacled Amazon (Amazonapretrei), 1 Cuban Amazon (Amazona leucocephala) and 1 Blue-cheeked Amazon (Amazona dufresniana), were presented fornecropsy at our laboratory. Results - At necroscopy, intestinal and bile ducts obstruction caused by a large number of adult nematodes was found in all examined parrots. Histologically, multifocal hepatitis with an intense infiltration of mixed mononuclear and heterophilic cells in liver perivenous areas, secondary to the massive presence of parasites, was observed. In some areas of liver parenchyma, a swollen aspect of hepatocytes with different amounts of biliary pigment inside the cells, was evidenced. Angiocolithis involving a large percentage of biliary ducts, was also observed. In particular, a large inflammatory infiltrate surrounding affected bile ducts was associated to duct obstruction, characterised by intratubular accumulation of cellular debris, fragment of parasites and bile. Based on morphological features of adult males and females,3,4 two Ascaridia species, namely Ascaridia platyceri and Ascaridia hermaphrodita, were identified. More specifically, A. platyceri was isolated from Cuban, Red-spectacled and Blue-fronted Amazons, while A. hermaphrodita was isolated from the Blue-cheeked Amazon. Finally, in the Yellow-winged Amazon a mixed infection by A. platyceri and A. hermaphodita was diagnosed. Birds that lived in the same cages with the deceased birds were immediately treated with Fenbendazole (Panacur®, 100 mg/kg PO, repeated after 14 days). In the same aviary, ascarid eggs were detected at microscopical analysis of fresh faecal samples from 14 Yellow-winged Amazons (Amazona aestiva xanthopteryx) and 1 Yellow-naped Amazon (Amazona auropalliata caribae) examined by flotation test with a low density saline solution (sg 1.2). Birds were treated with the same protocol reported above and adult nematodes discharged by the 14 treated Blue-fronted Amazon parrots were identified with A. platyceri, while those discharged by the Yellownaped Amazon were identified with A. hermaphrodita. Conclusions - A. platyceri (Hartwich and Tscherner, 1979) is an ascarid species frequently identified in Australian parrots,3 but also in parrots from African and neotropical regions. In a recent study,4 this was the only ascarid species identified in 15 dif- ferent species of Psittaciformes in the Czech Republic. In Italy, A. platyceri has been reported as the cause of death of a Crmi- son Rosella (Platycercus elegans). A. hermaprodita (Froelich, 1789) is an ascarid species frequently identified in neotropical parrots.3 However, this is the first report of this species in Italy. The present study confirms the ability of roundworms to determine bowel obstruction in Amazon parrots, and is the first report of A. platyceri and A. hermaphrodita infection associated to biliary obstruction.

ASCARIDIA PLATYCERI AND ASCARIDIA HERMAPHRODITA IN AMAZON PARROTS

Livio Galosi;Andrea Piccinini;Giacomo Rossi
2015-01-01

Abstract

Introduction - Nematodes of the genus Ascaridia (Dujardin, 1845) may cause fatal diseases in farm and exotic birds kept in captivity, including parrots. The aim of this work is to identify the species of Ascaridia that cause fatal lesions in Amazon Parrots and describe the hepatic and intestinal lesions. Description of the case - Materials and methods - Five Amazon parrots from the same aviary, including 1 Blue-fronted Ama- zon (Amazona aestiva aestiva), 1 Yellow-winged Amazon (Amazona aestiva xanthopteryx), 1 Red-spectacled Amazon (Amazonapretrei), 1 Cuban Amazon (Amazona leucocephala) and 1 Blue-cheeked Amazon (Amazona dufresniana), were presented fornecropsy at our laboratory. Results - At necroscopy, intestinal and bile ducts obstruction caused by a large number of adult nematodes was found in all examined parrots. Histologically, multifocal hepatitis with an intense infiltration of mixed mononuclear and heterophilic cells in liver perivenous areas, secondary to the massive presence of parasites, was observed. In some areas of liver parenchyma, a swollen aspect of hepatocytes with different amounts of biliary pigment inside the cells, was evidenced. Angiocolithis involving a large percentage of biliary ducts, was also observed. In particular, a large inflammatory infiltrate surrounding affected bile ducts was associated to duct obstruction, characterised by intratubular accumulation of cellular debris, fragment of parasites and bile. Based on morphological features of adult males and females,3,4 two Ascaridia species, namely Ascaridia platyceri and Ascaridia hermaphrodita, were identified. More specifically, A. platyceri was isolated from Cuban, Red-spectacled and Blue-fronted Amazons, while A. hermaphrodita was isolated from the Blue-cheeked Amazon. Finally, in the Yellow-winged Amazon a mixed infection by A. platyceri and A. hermaphodita was diagnosed. Birds that lived in the same cages with the deceased birds were immediately treated with Fenbendazole (Panacur®, 100 mg/kg PO, repeated after 14 days). In the same aviary, ascarid eggs were detected at microscopical analysis of fresh faecal samples from 14 Yellow-winged Amazons (Amazona aestiva xanthopteryx) and 1 Yellow-naped Amazon (Amazona auropalliata caribae) examined by flotation test with a low density saline solution (sg 1.2). Birds were treated with the same protocol reported above and adult nematodes discharged by the 14 treated Blue-fronted Amazon parrots were identified with A. platyceri, while those discharged by the Yellownaped Amazon were identified with A. hermaphrodita. Conclusions - A. platyceri (Hartwich and Tscherner, 1979) is an ascarid species frequently identified in Australian parrots,3 but also in parrots from African and neotropical regions. In a recent study,4 this was the only ascarid species identified in 15 dif- ferent species of Psittaciformes in the Czech Republic. In Italy, A. platyceri has been reported as the cause of death of a Crmi- son Rosella (Platycercus elegans). A. hermaprodita (Froelich, 1789) is an ascarid species frequently identified in neotropical parrots.3 However, this is the first report of this species in Italy. The present study confirms the ability of roundworms to determine bowel obstruction in Amazon parrots, and is the first report of A. platyceri and A. hermaphrodita infection associated to biliary obstruction.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11581/407960
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