In 2012, the Lancet Commission conducted a study into potential innovative associations between issues of health, social (in) equality, and economic development in city planning. This study recognizes the so-called “urban advantage” for human health and focuses on limitations of the linear and cyclical approaches to urban planning in dealing with the issues of health and quality of life of city inhabitants. In doing so, the Commission expressed the belief that urban planning is the most appropriate tool to move from the rhetoric of many policies aimed at promoting health and safety in the city to practical actions. The study requires planning to focus on experiments and projects while involving local communities and planning at various levels. More recently, the UCL-Lancet Commission 2015 report “Health and Climate Change” says climate change could be the greatest global health opportunity of the twenty-first century and it encourages the transition of cities to promote and support lifestyles that are healthy for both individuals and the planet. This book uses the above as a starting point and aims to investigate different aspects of European Healthy Cities, examining various best practices. Capitalizing on ongoing trials, the book identifies the policies that underlie plans and projects that have caused positive changes in local communities in terms of the quality of life, health, and well-being of inhabitants. From these best practices, the book deduces some themes, strategies, and general criteria for planning healthy European cities. The book is organized in three Parts. PART I – The City for Better Living With reference to the international literature, the first part of the book addresses the different aspects of healthy cities, evaluating synergies with other interesting issues concerning contemporary cities. It describes the successes and failures of the European Healthy Cities Network. Finally, it lists the main inspiration for new urban governance to promote the wellbeing and health of European cities. This first part includes contributions from two cities: Belfast and Bologna, experts on health, city well-being, and the governance of urban phenomena. PART II – Healthy Urban Planning in Europe The second part investigates the role of urban planning in promoting concrete actions to improve the quality of life, health, and well-being in the city. This was done through a selection of some practices in different European cities, with the aim of identifying and investigating relationships between: a) health promotion and urban sustainability; b) possible conflicts and synergies between different levels of urban policies and between different urban actors and local communities; and c) technical and operational tools that cities have implemented to ensure public health. The cases investigated include cities such as: Belfast, Bologna, Bristol, Copenhagen, Poznań, Rennes, Rotterdam, Turin, and Turku. PART III – Planning and Designing Healthy Cities and Communities Based on European and international experiences, the third part defines strategies and criteria to reformulate and adapt urban plans and projects aimed at building health-friendly urban environments. First, it promotes the assumption of neighbourhoods as an ideal field of action to understand the challenges to health and well-being, intercept and stimulate the participation of local communities, understand the design aspect of the planning choices that are increasingly tied to the quality of life, health, and well-being of the citizens. Second, the exploratory role of the project is considered in order to reposition and reorganize urban spaces with respect to the potential impacts of the transformations and effects due to climate change on health and wellbeing of city inhabitants. Recourse to checklists, guidelines, and design orientations is established, which can be of assistance in stimulating discussion and negotiation among the different actors on the urban scene and in local communities. Finally, in this dimension, urban design takes on two new meanings among the most debated aspects in contemporary urban planning: densification and the temporary nature of city uses. In particular, the former appears as a sort of prerequisite for some recommended actions in terms of health, such as walking, socializing, sharing spaces, etc. The latter serves as an occasion to approximate the quality design choices over time in an attempt to contribute to creating healthier and more equitable places and lifestyles.
|Titolo:||Urban Planning for Healthy European Cities|
|Data di pubblicazione:||2018|
|Appare nelle tipologie:||Monografia, trattato scientifico o commentario|