Balangu is a medicinal plant used in the Iranian traditional medicine to treat nervous, hepatic and renal diseases. To determine the effects of Myco-Root biofertilizer and chitosan nanoparticles (Cs-NPs) on the physiological and biochemical properties of balangu (Lallemantia iberica (M.Bieb.) Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) under different irrigation levels, an experiment was laid out as a factorial based on completely randomized design (CRD) with twelve treatments and three replications. The first factor was represented by different irrigation regimes, including no water deficit (90% FC), mild water deficit (60% FC) and severe water deficit (30% FC); the second factor included control (no Myco-Root and Cs-NPs), inoculation with Myco-Root biofertilizer, foliar application of chitosan nanoparticles (Cs-NPs) and co-application of Cs-NPs along with Myco-Root. The results showed that the highest fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid content, chlorophyll index (SPAD) and fluorescence indices were obtained in 90% FC treated with Cs-NPs+ Myco-Root. In addition, the maximum activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POX) was achieved in 60% FC with application of Cs-NPs+ Myco-Root. Moreover, the maximum essential oil content (1.43%) and yield (0.25 g pot−1) were recorded in 60% FC following the application of Cs-NPs+ Myco-Root. Chemical analysis of essential oil showed that germacrene D (31.22–39.77%), (E)-caryophyllene (16.28–19.82%), bicyclogermacrene (7.1–9.22%) and caryophyllene oxide (3.85–6.96%) were the major volatile constituents of balangu. Interestingly, the maximum contents of germacrene D and (E)-caryophyllene were recorded in 60% FC after the application of Cs-NPs+ Myco-Root. Overall, it can be concluded that co-application of Cs-NPs+ Myco-Root could be a sustainable and eco-friendly strategy for improving the essential oil quantity and quality, as well as physiological characteristics, of balangu under water deficit conditions.

Optimizing phytochemical and physiological characteristics of Balangu (Lallemantia iberica L.) by foliar application of chitosan nanoparticles and Myco-Root inoculation under water supply restrictions

F. Maggi
Ultimo
2022-01-01

Abstract

Balangu is a medicinal plant used in the Iranian traditional medicine to treat nervous, hepatic and renal diseases. To determine the effects of Myco-Root biofertilizer and chitosan nanoparticles (Cs-NPs) on the physiological and biochemical properties of balangu (Lallemantia iberica (M.Bieb.) Fisch. & C.A.Mey.) under different irrigation levels, an experiment was laid out as a factorial based on completely randomized design (CRD) with twelve treatments and three replications. The first factor was represented by different irrigation regimes, including no water deficit (90% FC), mild water deficit (60% FC) and severe water deficit (30% FC); the second factor included control (no Myco-Root and Cs-NPs), inoculation with Myco-Root biofertilizer, foliar application of chitosan nanoparticles (Cs-NPs) and co-application of Cs-NPs along with Myco-Root. The results showed that the highest fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid content, chlorophyll index (SPAD) and fluorescence indices were obtained in 90% FC treated with Cs-NPs+ Myco-Root. In addition, the maximum activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and peroxidase (POX) was achieved in 60% FC with application of Cs-NPs+ Myco-Root. Moreover, the maximum essential oil content (1.43%) and yield (0.25 g pot−1) were recorded in 60% FC following the application of Cs-NPs+ Myco-Root. Chemical analysis of essential oil showed that germacrene D (31.22–39.77%), (E)-caryophyllene (16.28–19.82%), bicyclogermacrene (7.1–9.22%) and caryophyllene oxide (3.85–6.96%) were the major volatile constituents of balangu. Interestingly, the maximum contents of germacrene D and (E)-caryophyllene were recorded in 60% FC after the application of Cs-NPs+ Myco-Root. Overall, it can be concluded that co-application of Cs-NPs+ Myco-Root could be a sustainable and eco-friendly strategy for improving the essential oil quantity and quality, as well as physiological characteristics, of balangu under water deficit conditions.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11581/464992
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